quarta-feira, 10 de junho de 2015

CO2 emissions, fossil fuels and renewable energies: time-trial race

To achieve any of the goals, 2100 or 2050, each international organization establishes priorities:

The Group of most industrialised countries in the world, G7, intends to continue to reduce CO2 emissions to control the rise in global temperature and keep it in the parameters defined as acceptable: two degrees Celsius.

The United Nations and the World Bank agreed with the G7, deadlines for ending the use of fossil fuels, but stress the importance of investing in energy efficiency, increasing the share of renewable energy in global terms: the current 30% to 80% by 2050 and to 90% in 2100.

The European institutions have established, they too, very precise targets, to be reached until 2030, among them:-Increase the share of renewable energy and energy efficiency, at least 27%; -Reduce by at least 40% the emission of greenhouse gases.

The Intergovernmental Panel on climate change, IPCC, proposes to bet on renewable energies in the electricity sector, from the current 30% to 80% by 2050. As the end of the use of fossil fuels is not away from the goal set by the G7 UN and World Bank: 2100.

Portugal, renewable energy and CO2 emissions

Portugal is one of the countries that is always at the forefront with regard to renewable energies. Under the guidelines of the European Union, Lisbon has pledged to increase its use of 20.5% in 2005, to 31% in 2020.

In the EDP you can read that Portugal "has set the most ambitious goal 5 between Member countries." A goal that encompasses "the sectors of transport, heating/cooling systems and production of electricity. However, it is the latter that must make greater effort to incorporate renewable energy sources. In 2020, about 60% of the electricity consumed in Portugal will have to be produced from the various renewable energy sources: wind, solar, hydro, wave, biomass. For 2010, this goal is 45 percent. "

"In 2013 has reached a record level, in the production of electricity from renewable energy sources" http://greensavers.sapo.pt/2014/01/14/portugal-bateu-recorde-de-energia-renovavel-em-2013/. About of 58.3% of the total consumed had its origin in these sources, which represents an increase of 20% compared to 2012.

Already with regard to CO2 emissions Portugal hasn't had the best performance. According to Eurostat data, between 1990 and 2012, the values were strongly and, although in recent years have been falling, CO2 emissions increased almost 10% between 1990 and 2012. The country is in fourth place with regard to that more emissions increased during this period.

On the other hand, countries such as Italy, France, United Kingdom and Germany, are among the least CO2-emitting.

The USA and CO2 emissions

In 2013, CO2 accounted for about 82% of all greenhouse gas emissions of the United States, from human activities. The main sources of carbon dioxide production in the country derive from the sectors:

Electric: 37%; Transport: 31%; Industry: between 12 and 15%

Between 1990 and 2013, CO2 emissions in the United States of America, have increased by about seven percent.

The biggest polluter "the planet

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